Friday, January 18, 2008

Chapter Summary

I was reading a chapter from Riedel's article. It described the important development during the 19th century. After the French Revolution, the social currents and political were beginning to go to a correct way. In the 18th century, we know some development in the area of mechanic: the inventions of Hargreave's spinning jenny, Crompton's spinning mule, and whitney's Cotton gin. In the 19th century, the era of widespread invention, created more significant developments. For example, the transportation systems, both steam boat and railroad appeared in 1802 and 1825; the electronic systems, electronic light, telephone and telegraph came out in the 19th century as well; the first undersea cable was laid in 1851. Even though the 19th century was the beginning of a fantastic technological progress, the coming of the Industrial revolution made people's life very difficult for several decades. The increased democratization of society and the need for more highly skilled workers made public education a necessity.

In the area of medical sciences, it was increased more than before, and it is another expansion of 19th century. They started having nursing profession and professionally trained phamacist. Many diseased were wiped out, such as cholera, small pox, and bubonic plague. The population was increasing because people could live longer than before with good medication.

The impact of these political, social, and industrial advances was felt in musical life. Music in 19th century reached a large audience than any other time in history. The music theaters, the entertainment halls, dance halls, all these flourished as a result of the broadened exposure of the public to more music and to materials related to music. There were more publishing for music showing out, such as music magazines, music periodicals and newspapaers etc. At that time, the concert life was extended into communities, musicians were able to travel a lot for giving recitals. The great conservatories of music were founded in every important cities.

For the more closed communication between the artist and his audience, "local color" was explored. Folklore furnished a wealth of colorful material with nostalgic overtones reinforced by nationalistic emotions. The artist explored the dream world, the supernatureal and various personal topics, more distinguish and individual. Musicians in 19th century also have propensity for objects of natural world, for example, in things pertaining to night, and by establishing a personal closeness to religion.

Much of the music from the 19th century was refered to as being in the Romantic style. The word "Romantic" means a folk story or a "Romance" in the vernacular. The story usually involved love and ligh adventure. Many great composers lived through this era. German composers Mendelssohn, Schumann, Wagner behaved like revolutionaries. Several composers were involved in political affairs, such as Bizet and Dvorak. In 19th century, patronage took on new forms, and musicians performed in Salons and Soirees of middle-class Parisian society, such as Chopin and Liszt. The 18th century's composers, they wrote music for emperor and court for earning money, they have purpose for writing. But, the 19th century's composers were free to write music for themself, they composed what they pleased.

Late Romantic composers expanded folk materials of their native cultures, such as Grieg, Dvorak, and the Russian Five. They often adapting melodies, patterns and the choral folk music forms. The folk music societies appeared in every Western nation during the 19th century.

This article chapter" the social order and music" is interesting to read. I got more knowledge about 19th century's development, not only from music area, but also other areas. I am glad to read it.

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